Iron Fx Scam Warning Broker Reviews Forex Peace Army

No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India

This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got.
I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are)
Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010.
One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit.
Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells.
So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain).
Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
Moving on:
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Convenient.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
- Chandra et al. (1989)
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided.
It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)

Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles. India bought something and paid for it. State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.

Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.

The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.

Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
Dewey (1978) points out reliability issues with Indian agriculutural statistics, however this calorie decline persists to this day. Some of it is attributed to less food being consumed at home Smith (2015), a lower infectious disease burden Duh & Spears (2016) and diversified diets Vankatesh et al. (2016).
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally.
Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no.
From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period, the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
A view echoed in Raychaudhuri (1983):
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground.
1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example see Rajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
or see Bryant 2000:
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist. [...] Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.

Bibliography

Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press
Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian
Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost
Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian
Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice
Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times
Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan
Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times
Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia
Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review
Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books
Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press
Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire
Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press
Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press
Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press
Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy
Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal
Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review
Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly
Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press
Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History
Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press
Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History
Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
submitted by GaslightEveryone to u/GaslightEveryone [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: football top posts from 2012-06-14 to 2018-10-07 21:55 PDT

Period: 2306.15 days
Submissions Comments
Total 999 14885
Rate (per day) 0.43 6.45
Unique Redditors 576 6128
Combined Score 82917 66145

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 5168 points, 80 submissions: Commandant1
    1. Tottenham Hotspur have nine players in the World Cup semifinals, more than any other club (313 points, 27 comments)
    2. World Cup final: France 4-2 Croatia. France are World Cup Champions! (227 points, 115 comments)
    3. Son Heung-Min and South Korea advance to Asian Games final with 3-1 win over Vietnam (125 points, 14 comments)
    4. Joe Hart joins Burnley after 12 years as a Manchester City player (123 points, 14 comments)
    5. Hugo Lloris “more than twice the legal limit” after drink driving arrest (92 points, 17 comments)
    6. FIFA Officials Arrested Amid Corruption Scandal; Could Face U.S Extradition (87 points, 21 comments)
    7. Tottenham star Son Heung-min could play his way out of military service (87 points, 29 comments)
    8. Keisuke Honda to coach Cambodia national team while playing in A-League (85 points, 5 comments)
    9. Crystal Palace Ladies: Wilfried Zaha makes 'substantial financial contribution' to club (84 points, 3 comments)
    10. Usain Bolt to join Dortmund training on Friday (84 points, 10 comments)
  2. 2969 points, 49 submissions: SubbyDoo
    1. Bojan Krkic: ‘I had anxiety attacks but no one wants to talk about that. Football’s not interested’ (100 points, 6 comments)
    2. Sepp Batter says Qatar cheated to host World Cup | News | The Sunday Times (99 points, 16 comments)
    3. Watford unveil this season's away kit, by sending the away shirt to every fan who attended all 19 away games last season. (99 points, 5 comments)
    4. Chelsea will attempt to withhold part of the £9m owed to Antonio Conte in severance pay on the grounds that his text message to Diego Costa telling him he was not wanted cost the club millions in lost transfer revenue (96 points, 11 comments)
    5. Sony Pulls FIFA World Cup Sponsorship (93 points, 18 comments)
    6. Zlatan Ibrahimovic has now scored on his Premier League, Serie A, La Liga, Ligue 1 and Champions League debut (92 points, 6 comments)
    7. Italian refs' new rule: "If on the pitch a referee hears a player using a racist term, that player is quite simply sent off" (81 points, 14 comments)
    8. Eriksen Does It Again (76 points, 5 comments)
    9. One of the world's oldest known footballs, found in the rafters of a bedroom in Stirling Castle and dating from around the time of Mary Queen of Scots in the 16th century (76 points, 4 comments)
    10. Russia's entire 2014 World Cup squad face FIFA doping investigation (73 points, 4 comments)
  3. 2879 points, 5 submissions: chocolat_ice_cream
    1. Football commentators (LOUD) (1207 points, 43 comments)
    2. Denmark against Iran. Iranian player heard a whistle from the public, he thought that it was the end end of the fist half, and caught the ball with his hands, conceding a penalty. Denmark coach ordered his player to miss the penalty. True football. (865 points, 33 comments)
    3. Japanese fans collecting the garbage after the game today. Winning inside and out of the field. (613 points, 24 comments)
    4. Million dollar baby (127 points, 12 comments)
    5. From Russia with love - Football is nothing without supporters (67 points, 15 comments)
  4. 1953 points, 34 submissions: StaleMilkNothingTher
    1. Messi splitting apart defences with one touch (94 points, 22 comments)
    2. The Zenit St Petersburg photo we'd all been waiting for, even if we didn't know it. (77 points, 3 comments)
    3. Série B is terribly underrated. Everything about this clip is fantastic. (76 points, 2 comments)
    4. Andy Carroll to be turned into very expensive glue (75 points, 0 comments)
    5. A Spanish youth coach is sacked after his team wins 25-0 (67 points, 8 comments)
    6. Michael Cox on Twitter: "Players missing the biggest game of their lives for two minor offences over five games is absolutely crazy" (65 points, 13 comments)
    7. A Liverpool fan is asked about why he doesn't want to pay £77 for a ticket (64 points, 10 comments)
    8. This guy's started the betting season strongly (64 points, 0 comments)
    9. Everton’s Steven Naismith buys Christmas dinner for hundreds of Glasgow’s homeless (63 points, 4 comments)
    10. Leicester City fans were celebrating long after the game. The announcer said: "thanks for your attendance but kindly leave". They responded: "we shall not be moved" (62 points, 6 comments)
  5. 1583 points, 15 submissions: OriginalJoker11
    1. While everyone is talking about Salah, Messi and Ronaldo, let's not forget that Ciro Immobile has scored 39 goals for Lazio this season, same as Salah and Messi (186 points, 10 comments)
    2. truly amazing story. Artyom Dzyuba was thrown out of Zenit by Roberto Mancini and went on loan to Arsenal Tula. Arsenal had to pay $160,000 in order for him to play vs Zenit today. Dzyuba paid half - $80,000 - himself and scored the late equalizer in a 3-3 draw. Payback time! (185 points, 5 comments)
    3. Heung Min-Son been named Best Footballer in Asia for the 3rd time. (129 points, 7 comments)
    4. Mo Salah is the first Premier League player to score 40+ goals in all competitions since Cristiano Ronaldo in 2007-08. King. (128 points, 8 comments)
    5. Since the start of the 2015-16 season, no player has more assists for Sunderland in league games than Adam Johnson (5), who has been in prison now for over two years.. (123 points, 6 comments)
    6. Man City keeper Ederson: 'I want to score before the end of the season' (118 points, 27 comments)
    7. Mohamed Salah has scored 31 Premier League goals this season – the joint-most by a player in a 38-game PL campaign (also Alan Shearer 95-96, Cristiano Ronaldo 07-08, Luis Suarez 13-14). Elite. (118 points, 12 comments)
    8. Wenger: “If God exists & one day I go up there and he will ask: ‘What have you done in your life?’. The only answer I will have is: ‘I tried to win football games.’ He will say: ‘Is that all?’ And the answer I will have is: ‘It’s not as easy as it looks.’” (103 points, 4 comments)
    9. Schalke 2-0 Dortmund - Naldo 82'(incredible goal) (102 points, 12 comments)
    10. Di Francesco:"Against Barca, we played as a team, we didn't focus on [Lionel] Messi and, by playing in this way, we can achieve great things. "We can't win this game by only stopping one player, we need to focus as a team. Liverpool is not only Salah, Liverpool has a number of good players. " (96 points, 3 comments)
  6. 1132 points, 10 submissions: Rockithammer
    1. UEFA allows additional extra-time sub in Champions League (206 points, 11 comments)
    2. World cup 2022 dates - 21 november to december 18 (185 points, 92 comments)
    3. Best Fifa Football Awards 2018: Luka Modric beats Cristiano Ronaldo and Mo Salah to be named men's player of the year (130 points, 41 comments)
    4. Zlatan Ibrahimovic's low-key MLS debut: a wondergoal then the winner for LA Galaxy (117 points, 9 comments)
    5. Roma 3 Barcelona 0: Edin Dzeko inspires Champions League away goals upset (110 points, 33 comments)
    6. Stuttgart Player Literally Throws Ball In His Own Net (88 points, 10 comments)
    7. Arsenal have confirmed the appointment of Unai Emery as their new head coach, replacing Arsene Wenger at the Emirates. (84 points, 8 comments)
    8. Steven Gerrard appointed as new Rangers manager: 'It was a no-brainer' (84 points, 4 comments)
    9. Kylian Mbappe nets four goals in the space of 13 minutes as hosts run riot to go eight points clear (68 points, 12 comments)
    10. Atletico Madrid beats Marseille 3-0 and wins Europa League (60 points, 23 comments)
  7. 1031 points, 16 submissions: RedArmyNic
    1. Leicester City are the first English club ever to win their first two matches in the Champions League (120 points, 4 comments)
    2. Chapecoense player wakes up from coma, doesn't remember plane crash (94 points, 1 comment)
    3. Athletic Bilbao fans celebrating their women's team becoming champions of Spain. (87 points, 19 comments)
    4. Russian 2nd division club Baltika Kaliningrad travels 10,300 km for a 0-0 draw in league match (84 points, 10 comments)
    5. Real Madrid are the only club to score more hat tricks in the Champions League than Lionel Messi (7). (75 points, 6 comments)
    6. After a six-year ban due to riots, fans in Egypt return to watch matches (65 points, 0 comments)
    7. Zlatan to United is confirmed (65 points, 9 comments)
    8. Mark Clattenburg got these tattoos to remind him of the big year he's had. (62 points, 10 comments)
    9. Carlos Tevez is set to become the richest soccer player on earth (56 points, 11 comments)
    10. Lionel Messi Said To Be Retiring From Argentina National Team (50 points, 19 comments)
  8. 1025 points, 16 submissions: CryptoandFOREX
    1. Eden Hazard to be offered £300k a week to stay at Chelsea! (121 points, 25 comments)
    2. Jose Mourinho reportedly set to lose Manchester United job and Zinedine Zidane favourite to replace him (119 points, 24 comments)
    3. Messi makes LaLiga history with Barcelona's 6000th goal! (90 points, 4 comments)
    4. Mohamed Salah filmed using mobile phone while driving with footage of Liverpool star handed over to police (68 points, 61 comments)
    5. Ryan Mason: “I have 14 metal plates in my skull. And I was a lucky boy” (65 points, 3 comments)
    6. Spain hit Croatia for six in Nations League opener (64 points, 15 comments)
    7. Luke Shaw in 'fairly comfortable' condition after horror collision, says Gareth Southgate (63 points, 0 comments)
    8. Hugo Lloris: Tottenham goalkeeper charged with drink-driving!! (59 points, 9 comments)
    9. Germany to host Euro 2024! (56 points, 0 comments)
    10. FIFA World Rankings: France sit top and England move up six after World Cup (53 points, 16 comments)
  9. 861 points, 14 submissions: todevils
    1. All jerseys ever worn by Ronaldinho in his career (136 points, 10 comments)
    2. Ibrahimovic drops Nike to launch his own brand (83 points, 12 comments)
    3. Liverpool vs Ludogorets unwatchable for those that are Colourblind (69 points, 18 comments)
    4. Mario Balotelli confirms he is leaving Milan to join Liverpool (69 points, 8 comments)
    5. Cameroonian player dies in Algeria after being hit by object from crowd (62 points, 4 comments)
    6. FIFA member believes 2022 World Cup will be moved from Qatar (59 points, 12 comments)
    7. Feynoord has a throw-in go straight into goal (58 points, 21 comments)
    8. Marco Reus signs new Borussia Dortmund deal (57 points, 5 comments)
    9. Cristiano Ronaldo recently became the official shirt sponsor for Portuguese 2nd division team União da Madeira (53 points, 11 comments)
    10. Shakhtar Donetsk says its club headquarters has been occupied by "armed men" (46 points, 7 comments)
  10. 833 points, 6 submissions: Hyv_Angel
    1. Commentator: “Sokratis Papastathopoulos passes to Konstantinos Mavropanos. He looks for Stephan Lichtsteiner... He’s found Henrikh Mkhitaryan making a run. He passes to Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang... And that's fulltime.” (300 points, 16 comments)
    2. I feel Portugal and Spain were really given a run for their money by Iran and Morocco. This was by far the most competitive group so far. Here is a look back at Portugal's game and how Iran punched above their weight to give the Portuguese a real scare. (229 points, 25 comments)
    3. World Cup Matches that Shook the World in the 21st Century. Today also happens to be the day when van Persie scored that stupendous header vs Spain. (137 points, 15 comments)
    4. Rojo: “My goal? Messi told everyone that it was either life or death. It would’ve gone badly. We could’ve conceded but Leo was stubborn. He told me to run forward. Even Masche. He told everyone to attack no matter what. He truly read the game & risks. He’s a leader. The best.” (65 points, 3 comments)
    5. #LUFC are delighted to announce the appointment of Argentine Marcelo Bielsa in the role of head coach (56 points, 5 comments)
    6. Football while fasting: life in the Ramadan Midnight League (46 points, 7 comments)
  11. 818 points, 1 submission: Nempowa
    1. England try to score while Croatia were celebrating (818 points, 95 comments)
  12. 700 points, 1 submission: Falland
    1. Batshuayi hits the target! (700 points, 23 comments)
  13. 688 points, 12 submissions: JoeAllan
    1. Amazon 'very likely' to bid for Premier League streaming rights (112 points, 12 comments)
    2. Manchester United won fewest points per £1m spent on wages (80 points, 2 comments)
    3. The FA Approves Retroactive Diving Bans (67 points, 17 comments)
    4. Check out this Altidore goal in the USA vs Germany game!!!! (66 points, 6 comments)
    5. Premier League scores in the US as NBC coverage finds growing audience (53 points, 8 comments)
    6. The best player from every Premier League club this season --- agree? (47 points, 17 comments)
    7. Villarreal sit top of La Liga for the first time in their history (47 points, 0 comments)
    8. SPAIN V RUSSIA MATCH THREAD (46 points, 83 comments)
    9. Arsenal season-ticket holders’ disgust at £132 Bayern Munich tickets (45 points, 7 comments)
    10. The REAL victims in Qatar WC debacle: the slave workers -- short documentary (45 points, 1 comment)
  14. 686 points, 3 submissions: deckymch
    1. Footage of the French half time team talk during the World Cup final (English subtitles) (487 points, 61 comments)
    2. Monaco sign Russian World Cup star Golovin (106 points, 10 comments)
    3. Son extends Tottenham contract (93 points, 9 comments)
  15. 574 points, 11 submissions: Icanhazcomment
    1. Messi goal vs AC Milan [gif] (71 points, 5 comments)
    2. Drogba great finish vs Madrid [Gif] (63 points, 6 comments)
    3. Hulk fakes himself [Gif] (61 points, 2 comments)
    4. Modric's lovely goal against United [gif] (60 points, 12 comments)
    5. David Luiz's 35 yarder [gif] (55 points, 5 comments)
    6. Hazard stunner vs Stoke City [Gif] (49 points, 4 comments)
    7. Eboue hammers it in against Madrid [Gif] (48 points, 3 comments)
    8. Alaba goal vs Juventus (43 points, 12 comments)
    9. Eden Hazard goal vs United [Gif] (42 points, 6 comments)
    10. Fantastic link up by AC Milan for Muntari's goal [Gif] (41 points, 4 comments)
  16. 520 points, 1 submission: ancestorprotector
    1. Oh what a finish by Bale (520 points, 49 comments)
  17. 490 points, 9 submissions: provenquality
    1. Man City have spent £327m since 2011 to make two changes to their first XI (78 points, 14 comments)
    2. How a curmudgeonly old reporter exposed the FIFA scandal that toppled Sepp Blatter (73 points, 1 comment)
    3. Sepp Blatter admits it was a mistake to host 2022 World Cup in Qatar (56 points, 26 comments)
    4. Mourinho (on Guardiola): "If you enjoy what you’re doing, you don’t lose your hair" (50 points, 8 comments)
    5. Winter in Qatar is Still in Qatar (49 points, 0 comments)
    6. Leo Messi to face trial over €4.1m tax fraud (48 points, 5 comments)
    7. Austrian players say referee was ‘too scared’ to send off Zlatan Ibrahimovic (46 points, 8 comments)
    8. Manchester United appoint Louis van Gaal as manager (46 points, 6 comments)
    9. Daily Mail's England team of the future from 2007... Where are they now? (44 points, 14 comments)
  18. 456 points, 3 submissions: randommanunitedfan
    1. 5 year old Luka Modric is collecting his herd of goats before his family was forced to flee the area and become refugees. (200 points, 36 comments)
    2. Love how the France Chants Kante's name. (169 points, 5 comments)
    3. The 20th goal that Everton scored today. Guess the keeper had enough (87 points, 17 comments)
  19. 445 points, 4 submissions: ammar430
    1. Neymar earned £200,000 to say sorry for behaviour at the World Cup – and he didn’t even write the apology (172 points, 33 comments)
    2. Luka Modric price tag set at staggering £670m as Real Madrid warn Inter Milan off transfer (162 points, 25 comments)
    3. Florentino is willing to pay 300m euros to bring Neymar to Real Madrid (67 points, 22 comments)
    4. Vinícius Júnior: ‘If God wants, Neymar and I will play together at Real Madrid" (44 points, 5 comments)
  20. 439 points, 1 submission: JakFrizz
    1. 5 girls no cup (439 points, 13 comments)
  21. 407 points, 1 submission: LeftyLuke-87
    1. Bend it like Beckham (407 points, 38 comments)
  22. 406 points, 7 submissions: Curiousme14
    1. The FA Council has rejected Hull City’s application to change their playing name to Hull Tigers (84 points, 7 comments)
    2. Qatar paid $1.7 million for Asian votes (67 points, 7 comments)
    3. Argentina Donate Their Runner-Up World Cup Prize Money to Argentinian Hospital (61 points, 1 comment)
    4. Barcelona offer Luis Suarez £40million deal - but only if striker agrees to 'bite clause' (60 points, 11 comments)
    5. Vanishing Spray Is More Revolutionary Than Goal-Line Technology (48 points, 13 comments)
    6. Leicester have been promoted back to the Premier League after a 10 year hiatus. (45 points, 4 comments)
    7. Gianluigi Buffon to play for three more years for Juventus (41 points, 2 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. lorcanmartinvilla86 (354 points, 23 comments)
  2. Salvad00r (264 points, 11 comments)
  3. Sphincterzilla (252 points, 26 comments)
  4. Chive (249 points, 93 comments)
  5. Dukmiester (248 points, 32 comments)
  6. MagicallyAdept (241 points, 23 comments)
  7. TheConceptOfFear (226 points, 4 comments)
  8. transformdbz (225 points, 9 comments)
  9. IntellegentIdiot (219 points, 39 comments)
  10. gullymangulliver (215 points, 2 comments)
  11. SwissJAmes (207 points, 57 comments)
  12. killernanorobots (205 points, 20 comments)
  13. Cisyt (197 points, 31 comments)
  14. pumkinhat (195 points, 23 comments)
  15. zorfog (192 points, 16 comments)
  16. SuperSonic4 (191 points, 30 comments)
  17. Brickie78 (180 points, 27 comments)
  18. Art_Vandelay_7 (179 points, 31 comments)
  19. bostero2 (178 points, 8 comments)
  20. stevenlondono (178 points, 6 comments)
  21. Stranger_Cake (177 points, 13 comments)
  22. xXGreco (175 points, 18 comments)
  23. alpseagle (174 points, 16 comments)
  24. chandler25 (169 points, 32 comments)
  25. resastrive (169 points, 3 comments)
  26. FrankLampard88 (168 points, 11 comments)
  27. rijmij99 (165 points, 47 comments)
  28. Jesus_will_return (164 points, 2 comments)
  29. Rockithammer (162 points, 13 comments)
  30. Waterbarron (161 points, 18 comments)
  31. MttsNmstr (159 points, 6 comments)
  32. AskNotAks (156 points, 4 comments)
  33. Sodass (154 points, 5 comments)
  34. Wildebeast1 (153 points, 48 comments)
  35. LittlePanda82 (146 points, 1 comment)
  36. Commandant1 (144 points, 49 comments)
  37. darthrasco420 (142 points, 1 comment)
  38. firasq16 (137 points, 2 comments)
  39. Subertt (136 points, 3 comments)
  40. Skuffinho (135 points, 15 comments)
  41. DMVboi (134 points, 4 comments)
  42. BonoboUK (133 points, 18 comments)
  43. cotch85 (132 points, 17 comments)
  44. MostWantedBandit (132 points, 4 comments)
  45. MelandrusApostle (131 points, 1 comment)
  46. Fushboire (130 points, 6 comments)
  47. Mattboyd2991 (130 points, 6 comments)
  48. im_probablyjoking (129 points, 10 comments)
  49. panicandrum (127 points, 1 comment)
  50. AFCADaan9 (126 points, 28 comments)
  51. jumacl (126 points, 9 comments)
  52. occupythekitchen (125 points, 19 comments)
  53. johnsonjohnson28 (123 points, 6 comments)
  54. SubbyDoo (119 points, 29 comments)
  55. Englishnotgentleman (119 points, 7 comments)
  56. robizzle89 (116 points, 9 comments)
  57. MrFlibblesVeryCross (114 points, 6 comments)
  58. Michael_Pitt (114 points, 4 comments)
  59. umiupbeat (111 points, 21 comments)
  60. letskillrobots (109 points, 6 comments)
  61. S-BRO (108 points, 4 comments)
  62. BetweenTheCheeks (107 points, 30 comments)
  63. prof_hobart (107 points, 9 comments)
  64. tronoz (106 points, 3 comments)
  65. yourfriendkyle (104 points, 14 comments)
  66. therefai (104 points, 10 comments)
  67. Nempowa (104 points, 2 comments)
  68. galient5 (103 points, 28 comments)
  69. H-habilis (99 points, 4 comments)
  70. 10241988 (97 points, 15 comments)
  71. Masterkid1230 (97 points, 15 comments)
  72. CatoPriscus (97 points, 6 comments)
  73. LitCorn33 (96 points, 5 comments)
  74. LiarsEverywhere (95 points, 16 comments)
  75. Afuckingdrowner (95 points, 15 comments)
  76. kaam00s (95 points, 9 comments)
  77. steadydeath (95 points, 1 comment)
  78. House- (94 points, 3 comments)
  79. tomd317 (93 points, 7 comments)
  80. xanfranreddit (93 points, 1 comment)
  81. brain4breakfast (91 points, 21 comments)
  82. EViL-D (91 points, 3 comments)
  83. JoeAllan (90 points, 26 comments)
  84. boykimjong (90 points, 7 comments)
  85. carlcon (90 points, 4 comments)
  86. AdamyBoy (90 points, 1 comment)
  87. thunderpriest (89 points, 13 comments)
  88. jamadelo (89 points, 8 comments)
  89. Auntfanny (89 points, 7 comments)
  90. FZTR (89 points, 7 comments)
  91. PumpkinTom (89 points, 1 comment)
  92. digitalfoe (88 points, 4 comments)
  93. Heathen_Inferos (88 points, 3 comments)
  94. ken_new (87 points, 7 comments)
  95. OrangeJuiceAlibi (87 points, 3 comments)
  96. offender1992 (86 points, 8 comments)
  97. Lazarus5687 (86 points, 4 comments)
  98. StabbingHobo (86 points, 1 comment)
  99. EfeceoP (85 points, 4 comments)
  100. Matux903 (84 points, 2 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. Football commentators (LOUD) by chocolat_ice_cream (1207 points, 43 comments)
  2. Denmark against Iran. Iranian player heard a whistle from the public, he thought that it was the end end of the fist half, and caught the ball with his hands, conceding a penalty. Denmark coach ordered his player to miss the penalty. True football. by chocolat_ice_cream (865 points, 33 comments)
  3. England try to score while Croatia were celebrating by Nempowa (818 points, 95 comments)
  4. Batshuayi hits the target! by Falland (700 points, 23 comments)
  5. Japanese fans collecting the garbage after the game today. Winning inside and out of the field. by chocolat_ice_cream (613 points, 24 comments)
  6. Oh what a finish by Bale by ancestorprotector (520 points, 49 comments)
  7. Footage of the French half time team talk during the World Cup final (English subtitles) by deckymch (487 points, 61 comments)
  8. 5 girls no cup by JakFrizz (439 points, 13 comments)
  9. Bend it like Beckham by LeftyLuke-87 (407 points, 38 comments)
  10. I'm an American falling in love with football by Waterbarron (381 points, 125 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 220 points: lorcanmartinvilla86's comment in Neymar earned £200,000 to say sorry for behaviour at the World Cup – and he didn’t even write the apology
  2. 206 points: gullymangulliver's comment in England fans celebrating in the street after the Tunisia game
  3. 200 points: transformdbz's comment in Germany goalless against South Korea, eliminated in group stages for the first time in history
  4. 184 points: Salvad00r's comment in England try to score while Croatia were celebrating
  5. 155 points: Jesus_will_return's comment in Denmark against Iran. Iranian player heard a whistle from the public, he thought that it was the end end of the fist half, and caught the ball with his hands, conceding a penalty. Denmark coach ordered his player to miss the penalty. True football.
  6. 146 points: AskNotAks's comment in Why do you use this sub instead of /soccer?
  7. 146 points: LittlePanda82's comment in Commentator: “Sokratis Papastathopoulos passes to Konstantinos Mavropanos. He looks for Stephan Lichtsteiner... He’s found Henrikh Mkhitaryan making a run. He passes to Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang... And that's fulltime.”
  8. 143 points: TheConceptOfFear's comment in I'm an American falling in love with football
  9. 142 points: darthrasco420's comment in England fans celebrating in the street after the Tunisia game
  10. 141 points: Sodass's comment in Who do you think should host the 2022 World Cup instead of Qatar?
Generated with BBoe's Subreddit Stats
submitted by subreddit_stats to subreddit_stats [link] [comments]

Cartel War Full Movie TV version - YouTube Spark Plug Free Energy Generator - YouTube YouTube Quisieron HUMILLAR y terminaron HUMILLADOS! 🥶 Ep. 2 - YouTube Curso de Forex Leccion 12 Gartley Aprenda Forex There's No Place On Earth Like Sosua Beach!🇩🇴 - YouTube

Adam Lemon began his role at DailyForex in 2013 when he was brought in as an in-house Chief Analyst. Adam trades Forex, stocks and other instruments in his own account. Adam believes that it is very possible for retail traders/investors to secure a positive return over time provided they limit their risks, follow trends, and persevere through short-term losing streaks – provided only ... forextv.com Questa pagina mostra il tasso di cambio del Euro (EUR) A USA Dollaro (USD) on 31 Dec 2013 (31/12/2013). Se si desidera visualizzare il tasso di cambio corrente della coppia di valute, si prega di visitare Euro (EUR) USA Dollaro (USD) Tasso di cambio Oggi. Puoi anche fare clic il nome della valuta per visualizzare i tassi di cambio di questa valuta conversione ad altre valute. IronFx is a forex broker. Iron Fx offers the MT4 and MT4 WebTrader forex trading top platform. IronFx.com offers over 85 forex currency pairs, cfds, commodities, indices, futures, shares, gold, silver and oil for your personal investment and trading options. Forex Brokers Forex Scam Stocks CFD - Contract for Difference MetaTrader 4 PAMM Accounts. 2019-12-13: The British Columbia Securities ... 56 Pages Posted: 21 Mar 2013. See all articles by Charles M. Jones Charles M. Jones. Columbia Business School . Date Written: March 20, 2013. Abstract. This paper reviews recent theoretical and empirical research on high-frequency trading (HFT). Economic theory identifies several ways that HFT could affect liquidity. The main positive is that HFT can intermediate trades at lower cost. However ... Lista de los Mejores Brókers Forex 2019-2020 de España e Internacional. Si quieres Brókers de Divisas en Forex Regulados, TopBrokers es tu web de confianza. Forex Forum @ DailyFX ... Tu socio de confianza en el mercado Forex. Desde el año 1994, TeleTrade ha proporcionado acceso al comercio en los mercados financieros para millones de traders de todo el mundo. ¡Gana dinero de la diferencia de los tipos de cambio, acciones, índices bursátiles y otros instrumentos comerciales con uno de los líderes de la industria de Forex! Este espacio está dispuesto únicamente para conocer la utilidad de los contenidos que componen esta página. Para solicitudes de información, y otras peticiones, quejas, reclamos, felicitaciones y sugerencias, bien sea de particulares, de entidades públicas o de órganos judiciales, le informamos que el Banco de la República cuenta con otros medios oficiales para su recepción, por lo que ... FX Empire’s top picks for the best forex brokers in Colombia. We evaluated online brokers for their regulations, trading platforms, customer service, account types, commissions and more.

[index] [23776] [8980] [25243] [3688] [11221] [15957] [2499] [25277] [136] [18252]

Cartel War Full Movie TV version - YouTube

#creativethink #freeenergy i am show about free energy generator using spark plug. the magnets create field, the spark plug absorb magnet field and convert r... Segundo episodio de gallos que quisieron humillar a su rival y este los humilló con su respuesta! Si les ha gustado el vídeo no olviden darle like y subscrib... Curso de Forex en Mexico Curso de Forex,Forex,Vicente Luz,negocio,inversión,invertir,curso de forex,Robert Kiyosaki (Author),curso de bolsa,curso de trading,mt4,trader,curso en español,en qué ... Sign-up with Airbnb using my code to book your next amazing vacation stay and get up to $40 off your first trip: https://www.airbnb.com/c/edabachelor Subscri... L.A. undercover cops disregard the law to bring down the most powerful drug mob in the U.S. Loosely based on Mexico's once most powerful drug cartel leader, ... Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. 20 IMPOSSIBLE MOMENTS IN SPORTS HISTORY

https://binaryoptiontrade.naricyc.tk